亚博APP

●拓展博士教育目标,从单一的学术目标转向为各行各业培养高级专门人才;

●博士生没有为学术界外部就业做好准备。

亚博APPboshijiaoyumubiaohepeiyangmoshidanyi,wufashiyinggerenheshichangdeduoyuanhuaxuqiu。chuantongshang,boshijiaoyuzhizaipeiyangxuezhehuogaojikexuezhuanmenrencai,qiwangboshibiyehoujinrugaoxiaokeyanjigoucongshixueshuzhiyebingweizhishijinbuzuochugongxian。jiyuci,muqianwoguoboshishengjiaoyuyixueshuxingweizhu,zhuanyexueweiboshizhanbiyue5%。raner,suizhegongxujiegoudezhuanbian,boshibiyeshengjiuyequxiang、jiuyeqiwangjunbiaoxianchuxianzhudeduoyuanhuaqushi。yishibunengshiyingshichangxuqiuhejiuyequxiangdeduoyuanhua。jinnianlai,boshishengnenggoujinrugaoxiaohuokeyanjigoudezhiyouyibanzuoyou(52%),erliuxiangqiye、dangzhengjiguandengfeixueshubumendeyuelaiyueduo。congxingyefenbukanyededaoleisijielun,chulejiaoyu、kexueyanjiuhejishufuwuye,jinsichengdeboshibiyeshengfenbuyuqitagexinggeye。youcikejian,zhizaipeiyangxueshurencaideboshijiaoyumubiaoheshijijiuyezhijiancunzaichongtuhebupipei。ershiboshishengderuxuedongji、jiuyeqiwangyechengxianduoyuanhuatezheng。sichengyishangdeboshishengrentongbiyehouhuodexueshuzhiweiyuelaiyuenan,gaoxiaokeyanjigoubuzaishiweiyixuanxiang。jinguangaodengyuanxiaohekeyanjigouyiranshiboshishengbiyehoudeshouxuandanwei,danyoujiejinshenzhichaoguoyibandeboshishengdasuanhuoyuanyizaiqiye、zhengfubumen、qitashiyedanweixunqiujiuyejihui。danyideboshijiaoyumubiaohemoshiwufamanzugerendeduoyanghuazhiyedingwei。shishishang,xinyilunkejihechanyegemingduizhishichuangzaohechuangxindexuqiudadaoqiansuoweiyoudegaodu,chanyebumenduigaoxueliyanjiurenyuandexuqiuyuelaiyueda,ergaoxiaokeyanjigoudengxueshulaodonglishichangquyubaohe,boshibiyeshengjiuyeduoyuanhuaqushiyijingbukenizhuan。yiner,danyihuadepeiyangmubiaoyiwufamanzugeren、shehuideduoyuanhuaxuqiu,jinyibufahuiboshirencaideshehuijiazhi,tuozhanboshishengjiaoyumubiaoshiburonghuibidegenbenwenti。

博士生培养要着力服务需求和能力养成

亚博APPboshishengpeiyangneirongxiazhaihezhuanmenhua,shideboshibiyeshengdenenglisuzhibuzuhuoyushichangxuqiubupipei。suizheboshijiuyefanweidekuoda,boshibiyeshengxuyaozouchu“xiangyata”,zhangwogengguangfandenenglisuzhi,bingnenggouzaibutongdezhiyehuanjingzhongyingyongsuozhangwodezhishihejineng。raner,zaichuantongdexueshumubiaodaoxiangxia,boshishengpeiyangyixueshunengliweizhongdian,butaizhongshizhiyenenglihuotongyongjinengdeyangcheng。tongshi,muqianyibanyierjixuekeboshidian(zhuanye)weidanyuanjinxingboshishengzhaosheng、zuzhihepeiyang,bufenzhuanyeshenzhizhiyou1zhi2weiboshishengdaoshi,“gujunfenzhan”demoshishideboshishengdeyanjiulingyuhenengliguoyuxiazhai。youcishideboshibiyeshengdenenglisuzhicunzaiqianquehuobupipei:yishiboshibiyeshengquefaguangfandetongyongnengli。zhenduiboshibiyeshengheguzhudediaochabiaoming,buguanshikeyangongzuohaishiqitatidaixingzhiye,boshibiyeshengxuyaotongshijubeizhuanyezhishiheyanjiunengli,yijikoutougoutong、xiezuo、tuanduihezuo、renjijiaowanghexiangmuguanlidengguangfandetongyongnengli。raner,xianyoudeboshijiaoyutixiqiangdiaozhuanyezhishi、suyanghexueshunengli,erwufaweibiyeshengtigongguanlinengli、renjijiaowang、lingdaoli、hezuonenglidengjiuyeshichangsuoxudejineng,daozhiboshibiyeshengjiuyenenglibuzuhuoyushichangxuqiubupipei,zhiyezhunbeibuchongfen。ershikuaxuekezhishiqianque,kuaxueke、kuajigoudehezuojiaoliunenglibuzu。dangjinshidai,xuekeronghehechanxueyanxietongchuangxinxuqiuqiansuoweiyou,youqishitupoguanjianjichulilunhegongke“kabozi”jishunanguan,wangwangxuyaoduogexueke、duogebumendegongtongxiezuo。yinci,jishishiliuzaixueshubumendeboshiyanjiurenyuan,yebunengzaijuxianyuzijideyanjiulingyumaitouxielunwen,ershixuyaojubeikuaxuekejiaoliu、tuanduihezuodengxindenenglisuzhi。congzheigeyiyishangshuo,mingqueshichangduiboshishengdenenglisuzhixuqiushiboshijiaoyudezhongyaowenti。boshishengpeiyangbunengtingliuyuxiazhaidezhuanyezhishihemougezhutidexueshuyanjiunengli,kuaxuekeyanjiunenglihetongyongjinengxunlianyingchengweibukehuoquedebufen。shishishang,tuozhanboshijiaoyumubiao,qiangdiaonenglipeiyangzhengchengweiquanqiuboshijiaoyugaigedequshi。

亚博APPzhongtiepazhouzhixian1biaoxiangmubuyaoqingmougaoxiaoyantuzhuanyedewangxinyuboshibaguankengdiyancengbianhuachulijishufangan。zhangzhangmingshe/guangmingtupian

yinenglipeiyangweizhongdian,zhongxinjiangouboshishengnengliqingdanhekuangjia,zhelipeiyangjubei“tzixing”nenglisuzhidechuangxinxing、fuhexingboshirencai。xueshuxueweiboshishengbiyehoubingfeiquanbucongshixueshuyanjiugongzuo,shiyongjishukaifa、qiyejingyingguanli、zizhuchuangyeyeshiqizhongyaodejiuyequxiang。zheiyaoqiuboshishengbujinyaozhangwoxitongshenrudezhuanmenzhishihedulicongshikexueyanjiugongzuodenengli,gengxuyaojubeijiejueshijiwentidenengli。xueshunenglihetongyongjinengdoushinenglisuzhidezhongyaoweidu,liangzhexianghucujin,queyibuke。yinci,jianyituozhanboshishengjiaoyumubiao,peiyangjubeishenhouzhuanyejinengheguangfantongyongnengli,ji“tzixing”nenglisuzhidechuangxinxing、fuhexingrencai。yishiyaojiangoumianxiangshichang、mianxiangweilaideboshishengnenglisuzhikuangjia,tichuhangaixueshuyanjiunenglihetongyongnenglizaineidenenglisuzhimoxing,yindaoboshijiaoyubiangehequanmiandezhiliangtisheng;ershizhidinggaodengjiaoyugejieduanyouxuxianjiedezigekuangjiatixi,mingquebenke、shuoshiheboshijieduanbutongcengcidezigeyaoqiu,tongchouanpaisangejieduandepeiyangmubiaoheneirong。

习近平总书记在教育文化卫生体育领域专家代表座谈会上指出,我国高校要勇挑重担,释放高校基础研究、科技创新潜力,聚焦国家战略需要,瞄准关键核心技术特别是“卡脖子”问题,加快技术攻关。博士毕业生作为知识的生产者、传播者,创新创造和创新成果产业化的推动者,对于提升国家原始创新能力,获得并维持核心竞争力具有重要意义。改革开放以来,我国博士研究生教育招生规模从1981年的900人增加到2020年的10万人,选拔和培养了一批又一批高端人才,但与此同时也存在一些短板。优化博士研究生培养模式,正在成为我国提升自主创新能力中的一个关键问题。

zhongyuangongchengguanjugongsiboshilingang(you),zaixinanxiangmubucaozuoneifangpengongjushiyashebei。zhangjingshe/guangmingtupian

1、博士生教育存在的突出问题和不足

yizujianboshishengyuanweizhuashou,tongguozhuanyehuazuzhi、guanlihefuwu,tuijinkuaxueke、chanjiaoronghedeboshirencaipeiyangmoshi。zai“dakexue”shidai,jiejianguojijingyan,zujianduozhongleixingdeboshishengyuan,tuidongkuaxueke、kuajigoupeiyanglingjunrencai。anzhaoyouxuhekexingyuanze,chuqikeanzhaokexueyanjiulingyuzujiankuayuanxideboshishengyuan,ruzirankexueboshishengyuan、gongchengkexueboshishengyuandeng,xiaoneixiangguanzhuanyedoukeyijiaru,shelikuazhuanyededaketihegongguanfangxiang,lianhezuzhizhaosheng、guanlihepeiyangboshi。houxukeyitansuozujiankuajigou、kuadiqudeboshishengyuan,gaoxiao、keyanjigouhechanyebumengongtongcanyu,gongtongzhiding“dakexuejihua”,xingchengdaxingxueshuwangluo,manzushehuigelingyuduikuaxuekefuhexingchuangxinrencaidexuqiu。boshishengyuanshilinshixingdeanpaihezuzhi,juyouzhuanyehua、feixingzhenghuadetezheng,yaboguanfangshoujibanmenkeyidingqipinggu、linghuosheli。zheibujinyouzhuyupeiyangjuyouguojishiyedekuaxuekeboshirencai,yekeyicujinbutongzhuanye、butongjigouzhijianderenyuanjiaoliu、hezuo,genghaodiluoshikejiaojiehe、chanjiaoronghe,tishengguojiayuanshichuangxinnengli。

xiediaoboshicengcixueshuxingrencaiyuyingyongxingrencaipeiyang,jijifazhanduozhongxingshideboshixueweijiaoyu,yimanzushehuibutongbumenduigaojirencaidexuqiu。boshijuyoumubiaohexiangmudeduoyanghua,nenggougenghaodimanzugerenheshehuidexuqiu,qianghuayanjiuzheheshijianzhezhijian,yijixueshubumenhechanyebumenzhijiandelianxi。yishiyaochongfenkendingzhuanyexueweidengxinxingboshixiangmudejiazhiyiyi,jiadaxuanchuanlidu,gaibianzhongxueshuqingzhuanhuayingyongderenzhipiancha;ershijijidongchachanyebiangexuqiu,zengshegongshangguanli、zhinengzhizao、yanjiukaifadengzhuanyeboshixuewei。kexingdesilushishengjigongshangguanlishuoshi,sheligongshangguanliboshi(dba),peiyangjuyouquanqiushiyedezhuoyueguanlirencai;shiyingzhongguogongye4.0hetigaoqiyeyanfanenglidexuyao,zhenduiqiyeyanjiuyushiyanfazhan(r&d)renyuanjiejin500wan,danboshicengciyanfarenyuanjinzhan0.9%deqingkuang,keshelizhinengzhizao、yanjiukaifaheguanlidengzhuanyeboshixuewei,zengjinqianyanzhishihejiaqiangxiandaikexueyanjiufangfaxunlian,peiyangzaojiukejichuangxinherengongzhinengdenglingyulingjunrencai。sanshixiafangshenhe、shenpiquanxian,gulizhichigaoxiaozizhutansuoqitaxinxingboshixuewei,ruoumeiguojiayijingkaishedekechengboshi、lunwenboshi、xiaoqilianhepeiyangboshi、chanyeboshideng,tuchufuwujingjishehuifazhandeshijixuqiu。

●教育目标单一,研究领域太过狭窄和专门化,主要以学科为培养单位;

●不重视培养学生广泛而必要的通用能力,跨学科合作研究能力和创新实践能力不足;

2、进一步改革和优化博士生培养模式